Free step-by-step instructions for promoting websites yourself.

You do not have enough financial resources to hire specialists to help you promote your site, or do you want to promote your own web resource on your own? Then our free instruction will help you.

In it, we described step by step what is included in website promotion and affects its ranking on the Internet, step by step described the main methods of promotion, noted the disadvantages and advantages of each method. Using our step-by-step plan, you can develop a strategy for promoting your portal and establish effective interaction with your audience. We deliberately do not publish too detailed information on each item in the checklist, since this data, if necessary, can be easily found on the Internet. So, why and in what ways can you promote your site on the Internet?

Organize your business and create a website for it on the Internet — This is not enough. Such a web resource will not attract potential customers, and therefore will not be profitable. Therefore, it is necessary to promote it in the Internet space.

Online promotion will help to tell a wide audience about the company and will allow you to find new buyers. With competent work, the web resource will enter the TOP results for search queries, which will increase coverage and traffic. Thanks to this, the company will become competitive and will be able to win the trust of customers.

There is no need to expect an instant effect from website promotion. This is a complex work that includes organizational, technical and analytical measures, the first results of which can be evaluated only after two to three months. There are times when you manage to achieve rapid success, but this is rather an exception to the rule. Website promotion — long process. It requires deep analysis, constant communication with the target audience and daily monitoring of competitors.

Pros of this self-promotion method:

one of the cheapest sources of customer acquisition; website optimization has a positive effect on its conversion and other traffic sources; even after stopping the work, the result of the promotion will persist for a long time.

Cons of this self-promotion method:

often it is necessary to wait for the first significant results for a long time (it is almost impossible to speed up the process without harming the project); despite the fact that this is one of the cheapest sources of customer acquisition, it still sometimes requires a lot of money; dependence on search engines (changes in algorithms can lead to a sharp decrease in visitors); difficult to carry out work on your own — you will have to look for contractors, as well as completely control the work: that is, pay money and get involved in the work process; often time consuming – a large amount of work is required.

Let's say right away that it takes a sufficient amount of time and certain skills that you will have to master to promote a site on your own. To fully delve into the SEO process, first learn the basic terms and rules of search engine optimization. — this way you can use our checklist more effectively.

The site should contain:

configured Google Console.

check the indexing of the site in Google; check the indexing of the site in Google, the same number of pages should be indexed; the index of search engines should not contain copies of the site (for example: check if test domains are closed from indexing); pages excluded from the index should not be promoted; there should be no duplicate pages in the index of search engines and on the site.

check if robots.txt is configured correctly; check if the sitemap.xml file (sitemap) is configured correctly; check how the canonical pages are configured; check how the pagination pages are configured; there should be no broken links on the site being promoted; on the promoted site there should be no circular links; there should be no unnecessary redirects; the Last Modified and If-Modified-Since headers must be configured; CNC must be configured (human-readable urls); must be in the URL must not be capitalized; there should be no server errors; there should be no errors in the layout of the site; micro-markup must be implemented on the site; Open Graph markup must be implemented on the site; site loading speed should be high; the site must have a responsive design, mobile version or dynamic layout; the site must use the rel = alternate attribute pointing to the corresponding mobile version of the page; the site must be displayed correctly in different browsers; the server must be able to withstand the load; check the markup of localized pages – on pages with different language versions, the addresses of all language versions must be indicated with the rel = attribute«alternate» hreflang =«x»; the site, of course, must be free of viruses and malicious code; documents should not weigh more than 10 MB.

check the title optimization — it must be unique for each page, 12 words or 140 characters, the main keys must be placed at the beginning; check the optimization of the Description meta tag – length 60-200 characters; check the filling of the Keywords tag; check the optimization of headings H1, H2, H3; distribution of link weight in favor of important pages; check if there are so-called «hanging knots»… «Dangling knots» — these are links due to which static weight flows away to nowhere, for example, lead generation buttons, active buttons for communication, links to non-promoted documents and pdf files); the site must be implemented «bread crumbs» (navigation bar); the internal linking of content must be correctly done on the site; there should be no hidden text on the site; check in Yandex.Webmaster whether quick links are generated; check the names of the images on the site — the file name should be meaningful and match the content of the picture (for example, «otdelka_fasada.jpg», but not «1111.jpg»); images must have alt and title attributes; on all pages of the site with the HTTPS protocol, all content should be transmitted only over the HTTPS protocol.

keywords should be collected from different sources; hints must be collected in Yandex and Google; LSI synonyms, frequent slang expressions, errors, abbreviations or possible variants of names must be collected; the semantic core of the site must always be up-to-date (it must be updated periodically, at least once a year); non-targeted queries should be excluded from the semantic core; the clustering of the semantic core must be carried out — grouping of words that should be promoted on separate pages; all key queries should be divided into informational and commercial.

publish information about the company on the website; add shipping and payment details; don't forget about customer support; post information about the warranty period and the return of goods; you should not include advertisements of third-party web resources on the site; tell us about promotions and discounts; you can also add information about the possibility of purchasing goods on credit; remember: the more assortment of goods on the site, the better; the ability to go to the cart should be from any page; place legal details (INN / KPP / OGRN); publish licenses and certificates; open access to user registration through social networks; the presence of the https protocol (signed SSL certificate) is required; for multi-regional sites, the option is required «Select city»; email must be on its own domain.

online communication (Skype, WhatsApp, Viber, Telegram, etc.); telephone — ideally a number that starts at 8-800… (add to both the header and the footer / footer of the site); online consultant; feedback form; option «Request a call / call me back» (add to the site header).

What should be in the product card:

information about price and payment; information about the availability / status of the goods; information on the timing and cost of delivery of the goods; detailed text description of the product; question-answer about the product; technical characteristics of the goods; reviews and ratings; Photo; video (a good opportunity to uniquely customize the product card if there are no unique descriptions); variety of order options (basket + quick order); information about the brand / manufacturer; the ability to add each product to your favorites or share it on social networks.

the site must be linked from other sites; the link mass should be no worse than that of competitors; all links can be found in webmaster tools (search engines should see all links); pages from which there are links to your site must be indexed by search engines; there must be no spam in the anchor list; you cannot use links from sites of prohibited topics or with suspicious anchors; links from other sites should not lead to non-existent pages; use free ways to get links; use social signals and crowd marketing; there should be brand references on the Internet; avoid «link wash» and hidden links on the site; avoid links from AGS sites and explicit SEO links.

there are no warnings in Yandex Webmaster and Google Console; no affiliate sites; texts are not oversaturated with keywords; there is no advertising or there is little of it.

in customer reviews and cases, indicate localities; add regional pages to the site; add the site to the Yandex and Google My Business directory; add links to the site from regional sites; use the Geositemap tool (for Google you can generate a special KML file that will indicate the exact location of your branches — the finished file must be placed in the root folder of the site, and a link to it must be specified in the sitemap.xml); open accessibility of pages for the robot regardless of its IP — if the site is geolocated, then different versions of the content are shown depending on the user's region (for example, if a robot entered the site from a Moscow IP address, then it may not index the content for Novosibirsk), therefore, it is necessary to make all content available to search robots; link the site to the region via Yandex.Webmaster.

refusals; the depth of site browsing (the number of pages visited by the user per session); time spent on the site; Search CTR; search returns and site returns from search; sharing in social networks.

Work on improving behavioral factors:

time on the site should be no less than that of competitors; Identify entry points with a high bounce rate for targeted queries, analyze them and try to find the cause of poor performance; the main blocks of information should be placed in their usual places; the site needs to be adapted for mobile devices. snippets should be attractive; Login pages must match the request; fonts should be easy to read.

This is a search engine optimization strategy that helps to achieve high rankings in the SERP for geo-dependent queries. — where the city, district, or just the user's location is specified.

For local promotion you will need:

«light up» on local news sites – you can use special services, including and; include geo queries in Title and Description; add information to Yandex.Maps; register the site in Yandex Directory; register a site on 2GiS; register a site on Google My Business; register a site on; register in local catalogs, city directories, thematic aggregators; make a virtual tour of your store / establishment / office and upload it to Google Maps; make the correct micro-markup of the site — in the snippet structure, indicate the physical address of the organization, a phone with a quick call option, rating and reviews about the company; create content for the site according to local requests; specify the address on pages in social networks; take into account geo-queries when compiling a semantic core.

Self-promotion of the site in social networks — simpler and more affordable promotion option. Today, almost every one of us is registered in at least one social network, so the stage of getting to know the interface will definitely pass much faster. In addition, thanks to friends and acquaintances, you will immediately begin to gain an audience, which means that by doing so, you have already started the promotion of your web portal.

huge audience; easy to find target users; ease of maintenance; communication with the audience; quick start.

big competition; you need constant activity and creativity; changes in algorithms can lead to a sharp decrease in the impressions of your posts; it is possible to delete posts and block accounts by the administration of social networks (sometimes for no apparent reason); requires the ability to communicate online and control yourself in any situations.

List of social networks recommended for website promotion:

In contact with; Classmates; Facebook; Instagram;;;;; YouTube;; My world; Viber, Telegram, WhatsApp.

After creating a community (groups, pages, events, personal accounts), you need to arrange the following elements:

Community name. Avatar, cover, miniature. ID URL identifier. Menu or top post. Tabs (they are also the menu buttons in FB). Block «Description», «Information»… Photos, goods. Video recordings. Block «Links» or «Like this page»… «activity» and «Upcoming events»… «Discussions» or «Notes»… Visitor publications, reviews. Audio recordings (if any). Documents (if any).

To save time on publishing content from the site to social networks, set up auto-publishing via RSS using special services.

Not sure how? Contact us, our experts will help you with this.

check comments; check community posts and private messages; publish posts or check if all posts are published through autopublishing; post stories or check if all stories are published via auto-post.

draw up a content plan; draw up technical specifications and define tasks for a designer, photographer, videographer, copywriter; analyze statistics and summarize; monitor competitors, study trends and interests of the target audience.

questions, polls; announcements of articles or news, links from which lead to the site; longreads (long expert articles); personal thoughts on the topic (2-3 paragraphs); graphics, infographics, visualization of quotes; video, live broadcasts, interviews; podcasts, audio interviews; industry news, expert opinions; quotes from industry opinion leaders; playing with trends; thematic humor; historical information and futurism; etc.

frending / inviting; statistical web elements (widgets, auto signatures); dynamic web elements (guest content); work on content indexing (uniqueness + words from the semantic core in each title element; hashtags (no more than 5 pieces per post for Facebook); integration with business processes; involvement of opinion leaders; integration with offline; placement on printing media; maximization of activity; conducting contests; attracting partners; content marketing; synergistic effect (using the above methods at the same time); targeted advertising (the fastest and «White» way); advertising crops (in partner communities or with opinion leaders); in-app advertising.

Use targeted advertising opportunities to promote your business. Targeted advertising — it is a method of online advertising, which uses methods and settings for the search of the target audience in accordance with the given parameters (characteristics and interests) of people who may be interested in the advertised product or service.

Targeted advertising on social media can help you accomplish the following tasks:

get leads; get subscribers to your communities; increase traffic to your website / blog / landing page (be sure to use utm tags); achieve large coverage for publications; increase «awareness» about a brand, product, event; bring potential buyers to offline points (shops, show rooms); initiate dialogs in the Facebook messenger.

Modern trends suggest that now it is not enough to promote a website only in search results. — you need to work with the entire search space: bring users from a variety of external sites, attract a new audience, collect a customer base and interact with it. You can also complete these tasks yourself. — it is only important to think over a strategy, choose information resources and start using promotion channels. To promote the site, you need to consider the following options:

Yandex maps; Yandex Zen; Yandex.Q; Yandex.Rayon; Yandex. Services; Yandex.Business; aggregators, marketplaces and classifications; review sites; sites with ads (for example,; informational resources; and etc.

Contact us and we will select external sites for your site and organize promotion on them.

gives more points of contact with your online business; attracts new additional traffic sources to your site; traffic quality will be higher — it will become more targeted; increases coverage of a new audience; brand awareness is growing; loyalty and trust in the brand increases, the status of an expert is strengthened; engagement increases; expertise is emphasized, reputation is growing; stimulates sales growth; stimulates the growth of LTV; link mass grows naturally, behavioral factors improve; even if you stop working on the site, the result of the promotion is saved for a long time.

production and distribution of content is labor intensive and expensive; it is impossible to get the lightning effect.

Content marketing will require the greatest amount of knowledge of all the proposed methods of website promotion. First, you need to determine what kind of content posted on your site, you will promote. These can be photographs and author's illustrations (for photography schools and creative studios), teaching methods (for educational centers), industry articles, as well as materials on the development and solution of problems in your business (suitable for almost any company). For content marketing, the main thing — create high-quality and useful content that distinguishes you favorably from competitors, which will increase the credibility of the company in the professional environment and will allow you to gain the trust of potential customers.

companies in which the client needs some time to make a decision; brands that offer a complex and / or expensive product; info business people who want to organize effective lead generation, get organic traffic and form a kind of community around their products (especially important for relatively new niches and those who do not yet have a strong personal brand); everyone who has a clear understanding that content marketing requires a lot of resources: even without budgets, it takes time, people, experts, authors — without consistency and patience, the result cannot be achieved, therefore content marketing is about «long game»…

for impulse purchases, for the sale of one-day goods and hot offers to buy the next Power Bank with a 90% discount; if we sell simple and inexpensive products, consumer goods; if the quality of the product leaves much to be desired, expectations are not met and people are unhappy with this, then content marketing will not force them to think otherwise; there is no need for a local tire service or a shawarma stall to implement a content marketing strategy — buyers come to them in a different way. For example, if you need a minor quick repair or a flat tire, then they will choose a service located nearby. When a person is hungry, he buys shawarma at the nearest stall, and does not go for it to the other end of the city. You need to think about which way customers come to you, and then assess whether content marketing can somehow influence this.

Conduct market research, competitor analysis and target audience analysis. Gather information on how exactly do they work with content? On what sites and what exactly is it published, in what quantity and with what frequency? What topics are articles written on? Analyze the search queries of users associated with your site. Collect informational keywords, group them and formulate article topics. Spend «brainstorm» to collect ideas for content. Filter the collected ideas. Decide on the content format for website promotion. Options might include articles, news, emails, photos, videos, podcasts, social media posts, and more. See 20 ideas for how to come up with topics for articles. Based on the analysis of competitors, key queries and «brainstorming» develop a content plan. See Why you need a content plan and how to work with it. Create a blog on the site (informational section with articles).

Add a section «Question answer»… Make tagged pages. Lay out examples of your work, portfolio. Create scheduled content yourself or outsource it — order content from professionals. Post content regularly. Format all content correctly. Use photos in your content. Create infographics. The texts should not contain grammatical and spelling errors. All texts must be unique. Don't forget the ability to bookmark and share a page. Analyze statistics, monitor the effectiveness of the promotion and, if necessary, adjust the promotion strategy.

Articles; News; Customer video testimonials; Section: Question-answer (FAQ); Step-by-step master classes on the independent conduct of some work; Reviews and comparisons; Guides; «Internal kitchen»: photos and videos of the workflow with comments; Customer stories; Online training; Interviews with experts in your field; Creation of an ebook or white paper; Commenting on third-party resources; Emails; and etc.

social networks — creating your own groups or pages, as well as using others to distribute the email newsletter information you need; posts in thematic blogs;

sending emails on your topic; profile internet portals.

Our agency has a large professionally engaged in website promotion using content marketing. Contact us and we will select a content promotion strategy for your project and create content.

Contextual advertising (from lat.contextus — «connection») — This is a type of Internet advertising that shows the user various ads (videos, graphics, text) in accordance with his search queries or behavior on the Web. These ads are personalized and highly likely to respond. It is often found in search engines, websites, mobile applications for smartphones and other resources. More details.

To launch contextual advertising on your own, you need to select one of the Google Ads or Yandex.Direct systems, register in it, set up advertising campaigns, replenish your account and launch. After that, the ads will (if done correctly) be shown to the target audience.

quick results; relatively simple start-up.

upon termination of payment, applications are immediately stopped; requires constant optimization; there is a chance not to recoup the funds invested in advertising.

Preparatory stage.

Install the Yandex.Metrica and Google Analytics counter and set goals for tracking the effectiveness of advertising campaigns Link your AdWords and Analytics, Direct and Metrica accounts. If you're promoting an online store, set up e-commerce in Analytics and Metrica. If in the niche that you are promoting orders come mainly from phone calls, connect call tracking. Create separate landing ads for each product or service category. Collect the semantic core. Don't forget to select negative keywords.

Setting up an advertising campaign.

Think over the structure of your advertising campaigns. Set up Search Engines and Campaigns for Ad Networks separately. Set up time, language and geographic targeting. Fill in the business card (address, phone number and opening hours). Add quick links. Add UTM tags to links in ads. Add a Metrica counter to each ad campaign. Include link markup for Metrica. If necessary, set up retargeting in Yandex.Direct and remarketing in AdWords, as well as additional types of targeting in Google Display Network or Audience in Yandex.Direct. Create ads. Choose an ad campaign strategy and set your bids. Automate your company: add UTM tags, cross-minus at the campaign level, upload costs from Yandex.Direct to Analytics. Explore the free automation tools that Direct and AdWords offer.

If you have any difficulties with setting up contextual advertising yourself, contact us and we will audit your advertising campaigns and set up new ones.

We hope this list will help you in the initial stage of promoting your website. You will be able to figure out the basics yourself and start the promotion of a web resource. But it is worth noting that today there are many promotion options that are difficult to understand alone and require special skills, so it is better to turn to professionals for a deeper and more complete website promotion.

Using these links, you can find instructions and recommendations for self-promotion of sites, taking into account the specifics of the business and subject matter:

Donate for the article! I will also add my own version for self-promotion of the site.

Let's start a holivar? "Sit – do not sit, but you have to start" (WITH). A lot and stupid. You would rather highlight the principles than collect specific recommendations, many of which are either outdated, or incorrect, or so general that they lose their meaning. Take at least the reference. a) it is possible without links at all – even in Google. Strongly depends on the segment, subject matter, competition. b) "Not worse than competitors" – How is that? What criteria do you propose to rely on? There are no official ones. c) In Yandex, bezankorka is useless, and Google will most likely consider your anchors as spam. d) The dirtiest links can be used – but on Tier 3, not directly. And, you didn't even mention a multi-level profile, that's it. e) Free links? What's wrong with exchanges or outreach (where the webmaster usually wants money too)? f) When was the last time you encountered ACS? Or is it about the type of site made for link sales?

"Sit – do not sit, but you have to start" Yet: "Holivar will not start itself"…

"All successful sites are optimized in the same way, each successful one is black in its own way. " – if Tolstoy was a SEO.

To chillivate, you need food, and this is garbage and copy-paste chewed thousands of times.

I like the concept of holivar in Lurkomorye.

Porridge and no specifics, it is not clear in which direction to move.

The point is that you read the gasp and hire specialists.

I don't think I will have to hire. I myself am engaged in website optimization, the main thing is to work, work and work again! Then there will be a result!

This is the meaning of most of the posts here, those who do something, unlike those who know and are overwhelmed with orders for the most not indulge. Yes: "one more time and many more times" and everything will not be as it should be, because it is useless to retrain the fasting people here. You need a mind that adapts to dynamic search engines, and for those like the author, alas, it is static as his recommended links. And guys, let's not get angry at each other in honor of NG.

In general, it is not bad as a cheat sheet, but in this case it was necessary to sharpen it for specialists and remove points of pros and cons from it, specialists do not need this at all. For clients, such a cheat sheet is useless, since they all do not understand what to do with this.

I would advise you to edit this article as a cheat sheet, then it will be cool!

On the question of commercial factors. From yesterday's analysis of leading stores in their niche (RF)

Good afternoon Olga, why do you need the following points for analysis: navigation point "Contacts" available on every page of the site a full postal e-mail address on its own domain.

This should be the default. Or am I missing something?

Good afternoon. The customer is not always ready to show contacts. Paradoxically). It happens that contacts are removed into the footer, there is no address. And even mail not on its own domain is still found, as well as mobile for communication. There are probably reasons. If the site is old, then it has "default" many amazing things.

Thanks for the answer.

Hello! We place contacts in the header and footer. At the same time, is it enough to place a map (Yandex or Google) with a dot / flag only on the contacts page?

A step-by-step plan for self-promotion of a site using contextual advertising on the Internet. Disadvantages of this self-promotion method: quick results; relatively simple start-up.

Is HTTPS written twice, should it be implemented twice for a competitive advantage? 🙂

And so practically everything that is possible has been collected, everyone had (is) such a cheat sheet. Well, or it should be (only without typos). ed.

Even commentators can not be seen! Minusanut was not forgotten, but to argue – apparently there is not enough knowledge)) Victor, thanks for the article. It may not be a panacea, but many things work! Just tell me, are breadcrumbs important on sites with a modest structure? It seems to me that this rudiment is useless.

Are the pluses in the minuses too ?? or are there no advantages at all for this promotion method? 🙂

conclusion one – expensive and fucked up for how long.

In order for the site to become popular, content is needed. If the content is better than the competition, the site will become popular sooner or later. I wish it happened sooner rather than later. SEO is responsible for this. The author of the article just wrote well about this. But the main thing is the content of the site! SEO is pointless without competitive content! How to make good content? Good content can be done in many ways, but the main thing is that it is better than the competition. My method. I have a website. It has popular pages. I only take 20-50 popular pages on my site and work with them. I look at the seo parameters of each specific page. I am interested in behavioral characteristics (PH) and where and where the traffic goes to on a specific page of my site. If the HF on the page is below the average for the site, then I raise them. How? Editing the page. I supplement the page with new material: text, pictures, youtube videos and put links to other pages of my site with similar topics. If necessary, I write new pages similar to the topic of the popular page. This increases the AP, namely the Time spent on the user's page, the Number of pages viewed by one user and the Bounce rate. This is what characterizes whether the content on the page is good or not. Where can I see the SEO parameters of one page of the site? It is not convenient to do this in Yandex Metrica and Google Analytics, they show the statistics of the entire site. The SEO service successfully copes with this task. Maybe there are others, tell me, I'm still using this one. Spage shows traffic, keywords and behavioral characteristics of one, specific page of the site, using data from three statistics counters google, yandex and spage. Spage also has a module for searching for seo errors in website tags, searching for keywords for a page, in it you can quickly create image links to the internal pages of the site and an Online Consultant module that generates ideas for new texts on your site. Maybe this will help someone.

Happy New Year. How will breadcrumbs help you get promoted?

There are nuances. Example: a person enters your online store, falls into a category, on a product card. And – a stop-car, because many of them have no similar products, no recommendations, where to go further, they are stupid. This means – either to the main menu or to the main one. But you just have to go back to the category. You can use a button on your smartphone, or you can well-formed "bread crumbs" use – if any. PF plus, the visitor stays on the site. Well, a couple more points. "Bread crumbs" – the same link anchors. If the system does not understand that yours, say, "home", should be ranked by some kind of frequency key – "bread crumbs" with a given anchor will help. Tested, works. And the snippet on the SERP looks more attractive if there is "bread crumbs" with the appropriate markup, which means there is a chance to increase the CTR. These are all, of course, little things, but as our Chinese friends say "The road of a thousand li begins with the first step"…

I applied for a full-fledged holivar. It didn’t work. We are losing the former lightness, we are losing traditions.

Duck your next material is waiting))

Eugene, thank you for your attention to our articles

The article was written in order to intimidate the client and give a clear signal: do not even try on your own, you will break your head, but we, as a pro, will do you for a certain fee, of course 🙂

check the filling of the Keywords tag;

It doesn't seem to work anymore. and it is better to delete.

Yes, we also believe that it does not work, we almost do not do it anywhere. But the search engines did not seem to give an unambiguous answer on this matter.

On Google, this is unambiguously text-based spam. For Yandex, it works as focus words, if it is in the text. Them, bitch, YATI, so sense to read and did not learn.

Just a question regarding the description of product cards? do you need to make it unique within your site and unique in general?

From our experience, it is not always necessary to make unique descriptions in cards. More important is the completeness of filling out the card – specifications, photos, videos, descriptions, reviews, shipping information, links to similar and recommended products. For some products, it is simply unrealistic to make a unique description (it is not necessary for the user, it is long and expensive) – you just need to specify those. specifications.

I also thought, but with a nonsense description, the cards just fly out of the index, can you tell me how to solve it? linking by type "similar goods" done.

And what kind of cards? Are there any product inquiries or are they solving categorical inquiries? And they can fly out not only because of the content, see the panels of webmasters and analytics, or even log files. If smartphone models fly out, it's a disaster. But some socks – it's easier to cover them from robots.

Virtually: The product is a nail. What unique description can you give it? But the completeness of the technical characteristics and scopes, yes, they will come.

Somehow, a lot has been written and it is not clear where to start)

As a plan of action, very even norms. Thanks!

The instruction is not at all step by step))).

Rather, a set of checklists from different areas of marketing.

It is unlikely that the business owner will cope with all this on his own (you also need to figure out which of the things described is outdated)).

If the calculation is that "on your own, without plunging deeply into the topic, is impossible" — he is faithful). ed.

We will be happy to hear your thoughts

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